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According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak. Göttingen maintained a strong focus on natural science, especially mathematics.
By , David Hilbert and Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made it a leading center of mathematics by the turn of the 20th century.
In , its teaching staff numbered and its students Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in , and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades.
He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl's students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.
From to , the physics theory group was led by Max Born , who, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics.
He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
During this time, the German language became an international academic language. One might be considered having had a complete academic training only when one had studied in Germany.
Thus, many American students were proud of having studied in Germany, and the University of Göttingen had profound impacts on the US.
A number of American politicians, lawyers, historians and writers received their education from both Harvard and Göttingen. George Ticknor spent two years studying classics in Göttingen.
Even John Lothrop Motley , a diplomat and historian, had personal friendship with Otto von Bismarck during his two-year-long study in Göttingen.
George Bancroft , a politician and historian, received his PhD from the University of Göttingen in In the s, the university became a focal point for the Nazi crackdown on "Jewish physics", as represented by the work of Albert Einstein.
Following the great purge, in David Hilbert , by then a symbol of German mathematics, was dining with Bernhard Rust , the Nazi minister of education.
The departments of Ancient History, Classics, various languages, Psychology and Philosophy are nearby. Elsewhere in the city are the departments of Anthropology and Educational Sciences as well as the Medical Faculty with its associated hospitals.
Other institutes are set around the inner city. With around 9 million media units and precious manuscripts, the library is designed for Göttingen University as well as the central library for the German State of Lower Saxony with its central catalogue and for the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, founded as the 'Royal Society for Sciences'.
Today the university consists of 13 faculties and around 31,  students are enrolled. More than professors and 4, academic staff work at the university, assisted by a technical and administrative staff of over 7, The post-war expansion of the university led to the establishment of a new, modern "university quarter" in the north of the city.
The University of Göttingen encompasses 13 faculties and a total of 36 additional centers and institutes including associated centers and institutes but excluding institutes or departments within the faculties themselves.
Within the framework of the —07 German Universities Excellence Initiative , it won funding for its future concept "Tradition, Innovation, Autonomy," its graduate school "Neurosciences and Molecular Biosciences," and its research cluster "Microscopy at the Nanometer Range.
In September , Göttingen succeeded in gaining funds only for its research cluster " Multiscale Bioimaging ", and failed in the other applications.
Consequently, Göttingen would no longer be eligible for the fourth round of future concept financing across the country in As of October , the University of Göttingen is associated with 45 Nobel laureates.
By this number alone, the University of Göttingen ranks among global top Südhof Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine , However, Göttingen has declined overall in other international rankings in recent years.
Within the Göttingen Campus the university is organizationally and personally interlinked with the following independent and semi-independent institutions:.
As Germany is a member of the European Union , university students have the opportunity to participate in the Erasmus Programme.
The university organizes summer courses for international and local students. One of the courses are in Data Science , a two-week summer school which is extremely interesting, interactive, and intensive course.
It aims at advanced MA- and beginning PhD students from any discipline who are interested in learning about the many facets of data science.
In a series of lectures, the participants will be introduced to the field of data science from different vantage points. Practical sessions will allow students to apply different theories and methods in practice, both individually and in teams.
The Social Program includes different events such as sightseeing tours, hiking trips or a joint barbecue. The summer school took place at the historic Alte Mensa building.
The most famous tradition of the university is that PhD students who have just passed their Rigorosum oral doctoral examination or dissertation defense sit in a wagon — decorated with flowers and balloons and accompanied by relatives and friends, drive around the inner city and arrive at the Marktplatz — the central square where the old town hall and the Gänseliesel statue are located.
The "newly born doctor" shall climb up to the statue of Gänseliesel a poor princess in an old fairy tale who was compelled to keep geese by a wicked woman and later regained her identity , kiss the Gänseliesel and give bouquets to her.
There is an old saying about life in Göttingen, still inscribed in Latin nowadays on the wall of the entrance to the Ratskeller the restaurant located in the basement of the old town hall : Latin : Extra Gottingam non est vita, si est vita, non est ita There is no life outside Göttingen.
Even if it is life, it is no life like here. Göttingen is like Cambridge in England or Yale in America: very provincial, not on the way to anywhere — no one comes to these backwaters except for the company of professors.
And the professors are sure that this is the centre of the world. However, the neighbouring cities of Hanover and Brunswick experienced a much greater impact from the bombing raids.
Kassel was destroyed several times. Because the city had many hospitals, those hospitals had to take care of up to four thousand wounded Wehrmacht soldiers and airmen during World War II.
Göttingen was also fortunate in that before troops of the U. Army arrived in Göttingen on 8 April ,  all of the Wehrmacht's combat units had departed from this area, hence Göttingen experienced no heavy ground fighting, artillery bombardments or other major combat.
In a reform in the district of Göttingen was enlarged by incorporating the dissolved districts of Duderstadt and Hannoversch Münden. Prior to the period of German romanticism , a group of German poets that had studied at this university between and , formed the Göttinger Hainbund or " Dichterbund " 'circle of poets'.
Being disciples of Klopstock , they revived the folksong and wrote lyric poetry of the Sturm und Drang period. Their impact was essential on romanticism in the German-speaking area and on folklore in general.
Since the s, the town has been associated with the revival of interest in the music of George Frideric Handel. The Göttingen International Handel Festival is held each summer with performances in the Stadthalle Göttingen and a number of churches.
The city is home to several ensembles such as the Göttinger Sinfonie Orchester  or the Göttingen Boys' Choir  , which are also performing nationwide.
In the mids, the song named after the city by the French singer Barbara created a considerable popular impetus towards post-war Franco-German reconciliation.
Because of the city's long association with academics and scholarly journals, Göttingen has acquired the motto Die Stadt, die Wissen schafft.
The city's population has increased since the Middle Ages. With the arrival of the early modern period, the growth rate greatly accelerated.
The population peaked at , in In , it stood at ,, of which around 24, were students. Buses run throughout the city and to the neighboring villages, as well as intercity bus services from the station Göttingen ZOB, adjacent to the railway station.
Göttingen railway station lies west of the medieval town center and provides links to several destinations in Germany. Like most German cities, the town is bicycle-friendly, with bicycle paths throughout the commercial areas except for in pedestrian-only shopping areas and beyond.
The time to pedal downtown from the outskirts is fifteen to twenty minutes. After the Middle Ages, the area of Göttingen was part of the archbishopric of Mainz , and most of the population were Roman Catholic.
Starting in , the teachings of church reformer Martin Luther became more and more popular in the city. In the first Protestant sermon was preached in the Paulinerkirche, a former Dominican monastery church.
For many centuries, nearly all the people in the city were Lutherans. As of today, the area of Göttingen is part of the Lutheran Church of Hanover. Apart from this state church , there are several other Protestant churches in Göttingen, known as Freikirchen.
In , Catholic services in Göttingen were resumed, at first only for the students of the new university, but a year later for all citizens who wished to attend.
However, it was not until that the first Catholic church since the Reformation, St. Michael's, was built. In a second Catholic church, St. Paul's, was erected.
Today, the major religions are Lutheran and Catholicism. In addition, there has been a Baptist congregation since , a Mennonite congregation since , as well as a congregation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
There is a documented Jewish community dating back to the 16th century. During the Third Reich, the synagogue was destroyed in the Reichsprogromnacht on 9 November , as were many others throughout Germany.
The Jewish community was persecuted, and many of its members met their deaths in the concentration camps. In recent years, the Jewish community has again been flourishing, with the immigration of Jewish people from the states of the former Soviet Union.
In , the first Shabbat could be celebrated in the new Jewish community centre. Finally, there are many Islamic congregations. Islam gained a foothold in Göttingen, as it did in other German cities, with the immigration of the Turks during the Wirtschaftswunder in the s and s.
They constitute the majority of Muslims in Göttingen. Other Muslims are of Arab origin or come from West Asia. There are two mosques in the city.
There is a secular trend in Germany, especially in Eastern Germany , but also in the West , where a growing number of people are not baptised or leave the church.
This trend is especially noticeable since the s, percentagewise between and the Protestants in Göttingen dropped from A town council with 24 councillors dates from the 12th century.
In this council took control of the new city district Neustadt just in front of the wall. The council election took place on the Mondays following Michaelmas September Starting in all citizens were able to elect the 24 councillors.
Previously this right was restricted and depended on income and profession. Afterwards, the council elected the Bürgermeister mayor.
In the number of councillors was reduced to 16, and later to In the city administration was reorganised again.
Then the council consisted of the judge, two mayors, the city lawyer Syndikus , the secretary and eight councillors. All of these were appointed by the government.
During the Napoleonic era the mayor was called Maire , and there was also a city council. In there was another reform of the constitution and the administration.
The title of the mayor changed to Oberbürgermeister. In the following decades there were more reforms to the city administration, which reflected the constitutional and territorial reorganisations of Germany.
During the Third Reich the mayor was appointed by the Nazi Party. In the authorities of the British Occupation Zone, to which Göttingen then belonged, introduced a communal constitution which reflected the British model.
The coat of arms of Göttingen shows in the top half three silver towers with red roofs on a field of blue. The lateral towers possess four windows each and are crowned by golden crosses.
Around the central tower are four silver balls. The city towers represent the status as a city which has been granted certain rights. In the bottom field is a golden lion on a red field.
This lion represents the lion of the Welf dynasty, which in its various branches ruled the area of Göttingen for years.
This coat of arms was first documented in The city has sometimes used a simpler one, consisting of a black capital "G" on a golden field, topped with a crown.
Göttingen is twinned with:. There has been a solidarity agreement with La Paz Centro in Nicaragua since which has, as of [update] , not yet led to a formal twinning agreement.
Göttingen has two professional theatres, the Deutsches Theater and the Junges Theater. In addition, there is Theater im OP , which mostly presents student productions.
The university has a number of significant museums and collections. The local radio station Stadtradio Göttingen which is funded indirectly by the state of Lower Saxony broadcasts on FM Its hourly news bulletins are the population's main source of local news.
Additionally, the radio stations NDR 1 , Hitradio Antenne Niedersachsen and Radio ffn provide specific local newscasts on their affiliate local frequencies.
The regional newspaper Hessisch-Niedersächsische Allgemeine has editorial offices in Göttingen. Its local news service is available for free on the internet and competes directly with the "Stadtradio" news service:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Göppingen. For the village of Göttingen in central Hesse, see Lahntal.
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